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英语语法时态详解,这些不知道还怎么高考

2017-06-02 20:38:08 来源:佚名

 

高考必考:英语语法——时态

 

1. 一般现在时

 

①表示客观事实或普通真理(不受时态限制)

The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun.

Water boils at 100oC.

 

②表示现状、性质、状态时多用系动词或状态动词;表示经常或习惯性的动作,多用动作动词,且常与表频率的时间状语连用。

Ice feels cold.

We always care for each other and help each other.

 

③表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时:see、hear、smell、taste、feel、notice、agree、believe、like、hate、want、think、belong seem等。如:

I know what you mean.

Smith owns a car and a house.

All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School.

 

④在时间、条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。但要注意由if 引导的条件状语从句中可以用shall或will表“意愿”,但不表示时态。

If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased.如果你愿意接受并参加我们的舞会,我的家人会非常高兴。

 

⑤少数用于表示起止的动词如come、go、leave、arrive、fly、return、start、begin、pen、close、end、stop等常用一般现在时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作。当be表示根据时间或事先安排,肯定会出现的状态,只用一般现在时。

The shop closes at 11:00 p.m. every day.

Tomorrow is Wednesday.

 

2. 一般过去时

 

①一般过去时的基本用法:表示过去的事情、动作或状态常与表示过去具体的时间状语连用(或有上下文语境暗示);用于表达过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或希望的事通常用过去式。如:

I met her in the street yesterday.

I once saw the famous star here.

They never drank wine.

I thought the film would be interesting,but it isn’t.

 

②如果从句中有一个过去的时间状语,尽管从句中的动作先于主句发生,但从句中的谓语动词连用过去式。如:

He told me he read an interesting novel last night.

 

③表示两个紧接着发生的动作,常由以下词语连接,用一般过去时。如:but, and, when, as soon as, immediately, the moment, the minute。

The moment she came in, she told me what had happened to her.

He bought a watch but lost it.

 

④常用一般过去时的句型:

Why didn’t you / I think of that?

I didn’t notice it.

I forgot to tell you I had been there with my brother before.

I didn’t recognize him.

 

3. 一般将来时

 

①表示未来的动作或状态常用will / shall + 动词(常与表示将来的时间状语边用如tomorrow、next week等)。

 

②表示一种趋向或习惯动作。

We’ll die without air or water.

 

③表示趋向行为的动词如come、go、start、begin、leave等词常用进行时的形式表示将来时。

 

④be going to与will / shall, be to do, be about to do用法及区别

 

be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事,这种打算往往经过事先考虑,甚至已做了某种准备;shall / will do表示未事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。

 

be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而will则能,表意愿。如:

If it is fine, we’ll go fishing.(正确)

If it is fine, we are going to go fishing.(错误)

 

be to do sth.表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止,可能性等。

A meeting is to be held at 3:00 o’clock this afternoon.

 

be about to do sth.表示“即可,就要”,后面不能接时间状语或状语从句。

Autumn harvest is about to start.

 

 

4. 现在进行时

 

①表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作;表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时;表近期特定的安排或计划;go、come等起止动作可用进行时代替将来时。如:

It is raining now.

He is teaching English and learning Chinese.

I am meeting Mr. Wang tonight.

We are leaving on Friday.

At six I am bathing the baby.(I start bathing the bady before six.)

The girl is always talking loud in public.(与always、often等频度副词连用,表经常反复的行动或某种感情色彩)

 

②下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。

(A)表示心理状态、情感的动作:like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need。

(B)表存在的状态的动词:appear, exist, lie, remain, seem belong to, depend on。

(C)表示一时性动作的动词:allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete。

(D)表示感官的动词:see, hear, notice, feel, smell, sound, taste, look。

 

5. 过去完成时

 

①常用过去完成时的几种情况:

 

(A)在by、by the end、by the time、until、before、since后接表示过去某一时间的短语或从句以前发生的动作。如:By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. 

 

(B)表示曾实现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用had hoped / planned / meant / intended/

though / wanted / expected等或用上述动词过去式接不定式完成式表示即:hoped / planned … + to have done。

 

(C)“时间名词 + before”在句子中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成时;“时间名词 + ago”在句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去式。如:He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago.

 

(D)表示“一……就”的几个句型:Hardly / No sooner / Scarcely had + 主语 + 过去分词 + when / than / before + 一般过去时。如:We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No sooner had we been seated than the bus started.

 

②在before或after引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时态代替过去完成时。

After he (had)left the room, the boss came in.

We arrived home before it snowed.

 

6. 过去将来时

 

参照一般将来时对比:用would do、was / were going to do sth.表过去将来;come、go、leave等过去进行时表过去将来时;was / were to do sth.和was / were about to do sth.表过去将来。

 

7. 过去进行时

 

过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某一阶段内发生或频繁发生。

 

某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生,其中一个在由when或while引导的时间状语从句中。

 

8. 现在完成时

 

①现在完成时除可以和for、since引导的状语连用外,还可以和下面的介词短语连用:during / in /over the last(past)few years (months, weeks)、in recent years等。

 

②下列句型中常用现在完成时

It is (has been) + 一段时间 + since从句

This(That / It)is the first(second…)time that + 完成时

This(That / It)is the only … + that + 完成时

This(that / It)is the best / finest / most interesting … + that 从句 + 完成时

 

③在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替一般将来时。如:

I shall post the letter as soon as I have written it.

If you have done the experiment, you will realize the theory better.

Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped.

 

9. 时态区别

 

①一般过去时与现在完成时:时间上有差异:凡有过去时间的均用过去时态,不能用完成时态,如含有ago、last year、just now、the other day等。

结果上有差异:现在完成时强调的是对“现在”的影响和结果,动作到现在刚完成或还在继续;一般过去时强调的是动作发生在“过去”,和现在毫无关系。

 

②过去完成时与一般过去时:过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去”;如出现同一主语连续几个动作(“连谓”)形式则只用一般过去时即可。

被动语态考查要点简述

被动语态的构成方式:be + 过去分词,口语只也有用get / become + 过去分词表示。被动语态的基本用法:不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。强调或突出动作的承受者常用被动语态(by短语有时可以省略)。

 

(1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。

①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。

My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday.

An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday.

I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday.

②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变);(作补语的)不定式前需加to。

The boss made him work all day long.

He was made to work all day long(by the boss)

③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。

The children were taken good care of (by her).

Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to.

④情态动词和be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better等结构变被动语态,只需将它们后面的动词原形变为be +过去分词。

⑤当句子的谓语为say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report等时,被动语态有两种形式:(A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。(B)用it作形式主语,真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如:

People say he is a smart boy.

It is said that he is a smart boy.

He is said to be a smart boy.

 

People know paper was made in China first.

It is known that paper was made in China first.

Paper was known to be made in China first.

类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that …

 

(2)不能用被动语态的几种情况。

①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。

②表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、look like、consist to等。

③表示归属的动词,如have、own、belong to等。

④表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate等。

⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。

⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。

⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有sell、write、wash、open、lock等。

 

(3)主动形式表被动意义。

①当feel、look、smell、taste、sound等后面接形容词时;当cut、read、sell、wear、write等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。

This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。

These novels won’t sell well.这些小说不畅销。

My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。

The door won’t lock.门锁不上。

The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。

②当break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out等动词表示“发生、关闭、制定”等意思时。

The plan worked out successfully.

The lamps on the wall turn off.

③want, require, need后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。

④be worth doing用主动形式表示被动含义。

⑤在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。

This kind of water isn’t fit to drink.

The girl isn’t easy to get along with.

另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。

 

(4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。

①be seated坐着

He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。

②be hidden躲藏

He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后。

③be lost迷路

④be drunk喝醉

⑤be dressed穿着

The girl was dressed in a red short skirt.

 

(5)被动语态与系表结构的区别

被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态。如:

The book was sold by a certain bookstore.(被动语态)

The book is well sold.(系表结构)

精典例题练习

 

名题导解

 

1. Visitors ________not to touch the exhibits.

A.will request                   B.are requested       

C.are requesting                 D.request

解析:答案为B。此题的时态是不难判断的,因为说的是一条规定,所以用一般现在时,而visitor与request之间是动宾关系,即request visitors not to touch the exhibits,究竟是谁要求他们这样做呢?不清楚,也不必知道,因此需要用被动语态。分析visitors与request之间的关系是此题的解题关键。

 

2. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology __________ so rapidly.

A.is changing                    B.has changed      

C.will have changed               D.will change

解析:答案为A。此题考查现在进行时态的用法。句意为“选择一部移动电话不是一件容易的事,因为科技发展得十分迅速。”本句的主句一般现在时表达的是目前的情况,而“科技发展迅速”也是现阶段正存在的一种状态,不是在过去,也不是在将来,因此只能用现在进行时表达。

 

3. All the preparations for the task ___________, and we’re ready to start.

A.completed                       B.complete

C.had been completed               D.have been completed

解析:答案为D。现在完成时表示过去年做的事对现在的影响。从and we’re ready to start句意可知,一切准备工作已经就绪,可以开始工作了。complete是及物动词,与句子的主语是被动关系,所以需要用被动语态表达。注意①分清complete与主语之间的关系;②结合语境选择正确时态。

动词的时态与语态习题

 

1.—We could have walked to the station.It was so near.

—Yes.A taxi at all necessary.

A.wasn’t B.hadn’t been 

C.wouldn’t be D.won’t be

 

2.When I got to the cinema,the film for the minutes.

A.has begun B.had begun 

C.had been on D.was on

 

3.If city noises from increasing,people shout to be heard even at the dinner table.

A.are not kept;will have to 

B.are not kept;have to

C.do not keep;will have to 

D.do not keep;have to

 

4.In some parts of the world,tea with milk and sugar.

A.is serving B.is severed 

C.serves D.served

 

5.—Do you like the material?

—Yes,it vety soft.

A.is feeling B.felt 

C.feels D.is felt

 

6.I don’t really work here.I until the new secretary arrives.

A.just help out B.have just helped out 

C.am just helping out D.will just help out

 

7.—You haven’t been to Beijing,have you?

— .How I wish to go there!

A.Yes.I have B.Yes,I haven’t 

C.No.I have D.No,I haven’t

 

8.It is reported that by the end of this year,another school will .

A.be built B.have built 

C.have been built D.have be built

 

9.—Hey,look where you are going!

— ——0h,I’m terribly sorry. .

A.I’m not noticing 

B.1 wasn’t noticing 

C.I haven’t noticed 

D.I don’t notice

 

10.—How are you today?

— ——Oh,I as ill as I do now for a long time.

A.didn’t feel B.wasn’t feeling 

C.don’t fee D.haven’t felt

l1.Old McDonald gave up smoking for a while,but soon to his old ways.

A.returned B.returns 

C.was returning 

D.had returned

 

12.All the preparations for the task ,and we’re ready to start.

A.completed B.complete 

C.had been completed 

D.have been completed

 

13.He to the lab than he set out to do the experiment.

A.has no sooner got 

B.was supposed to

C.will no sooner get 

D.have no sooner got

 

14.The train arrive at 11:30 but it was an hour late.

A.would suppose 

B.was supposed to 

C.is supposed to 

D.supposed to

 

15.He stepped into the office, down and began to fill in the forms.

A.sitting B.to sit 

C.sat D.having sat

 

16.The little girl her heart out because she her toy bear and believed she wasn’t ever going to find it.

A.had cried;1ost 

B.cried;had lose

C.has cried;has lost 

D.cries;has 1ost

 

17.Both my brothers work at the power station that at my home town.

A.has set up B.has been set up 

C.was set up D.is set up

 

18.Linda has 1ost her passport again.It’s the second time this .

A.has happened 

B.has been happened 

C.happened 

D.happens

 

19.—Sorry,I forgot to post the letter for you.

—Never mind, it myself tonight.

A.I’m going to post 

B.I’d better to post

C.I’ll post 

D.I’d rather post

 

20.He his leg when he in a football match against another schoo1.

A.broke;played 

B.was breaking;was playing

C.broke;was playing 

D.was breaking;played

 

21.—Where the recorder? I Can’t see it anywhere.

—I it right here.But now it’s gone.

A.did you put;have put 

B.have you put put

C.had you put;was putting 

D.were you putting;have put

 

22.Hello! I you in London.How long have you been here?

A.don’t know;were 

B.hadn’t known;are

C.have known;are 

D.didn’t know;were

 

23.—Come on,Peter.I want to show you something.

—Oh,how nice of you! I you to bring me a gift.

A.never think;are going 

B.never thought;were going

C.didn’t think;were going 

D.hadn’t thought;were going

 

24.All the teachers in this schoo1 are .

A.clean dressing 

B.cleanly dressing 

C.clean dressed 

D.cleanly dressed

 

25.When I was at college I three foreign languages,but I all except a few words of each.

A.spoke;had forgotten 

B.spoke;have forgotten

C.had spoken;had forgotten 

D.had spoken;have forgotten

 

26.—Have you moved into the new house?

—Not yet.The rooms .

A.are being painted 

B.are painting 

C.are painted 

D.are being painting

 

27.—Excuse me,sir.Would you do me a favor? of course.What is it?

—I if you could tell me how to fill out this form.

A.had wondered 

B.was wondering 

C.would wonder 

D.did wonder

 

28.—We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time.

— What do you suppose to her?

A.was happening 

B.to happen 

C.has happened 

D.having happened

 

29.I wonder why Jenny us recently.We should have heard from her by now.

A.hasn’t written 

B.doesn’t write 

C.won’t write 

D.hadn’t written

 

30.Mary a dress when she cut her finger.

A.make B.is making 

C.was making D.makes

 

31.—Do you know our town at all?

—No,this is the first time I here.

A.was B.have been 

C.came D.am coming

 

32.The last time I Jane she cotton in the fields.

A.had seen;was picking 

B.saw;picked

C.had seen;picked 

D.saw;was picking

 

33.Tom into the house when no one .

A.slipped;was looking 

B.had slipped;looked

C.slipped;had looked 

D.was slipped;looked

 

34.We were all surprised when he made it clear that he office soon.

A.1eaves B.would leave 

C.1eft D.had left

 

35 The pen I I is on my desk,right under my nose.

A.think;lost B.thought;had lost

C.think;had lost D.thought;have 1ost

 

36.—Can I join the club,Dad?

—You can when you a bit older.

A.get B.will get 

C.are getting D.will have got

 

37.—I’m sorry to keep you waiting.

—0h,not at a11.I here only a few minutes.

A.have been B.had been 

C.was D.will be

 

38.You don’t have to describe her I her several times.

A.had met B.have met 

C.met D.most

答案

1-5 ACABC 6-10 CDCBD

11-15 ADDBC 

16-20 BBACC 

21-25 BDBDB 

26-30 ABCAC

31-35 BDABB 

36-38 AAB